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This guide includes tips and tools for citing in MLA, APA, Chicago and other citation styles.

Citing Sources: How to use this guide

This guide is designed to help you cite sources used in your academic writing. Because there are numerous citation standards recommended for different disciplines, speak with your professor for syle and formatting guidelines before beginning your research. 

Why Cite?

Citations give credit to authors and scholars whose work you have used in your own research.  In addition, accurate citations allow readers to locate sources you've consulted, should they want to verify or continue and build upon your research. Finally, citations form a basis for scholarly communication between you and scholars in your field.  In fact, your work may be read, evaluated, and cited in future research!

Which Style Should I Use?

If for any reason you've not received citation guidelines in class or in your syllabus, the following list includes common styles for selected disciplines.  Once you've identified the correct style, use the tabs at the top of this guide to begin formatting your citations:

  • MLA Style (Modern Language Association) is used in Literature and the Humanities.

  • APA Style (American Psychological Association) is used in Psychology, Business, Economics, Education, and Sociology

  • Chicago Style (Chicago Manual of Style) is used in Literature, the Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences. Note: The Chicago Style includes two documentation systems: (1) the Notes and Bibliography style, used in Literature, History, and the Arts and (2) the Author-Date style used in Physical, Natural, and Social Sciences.